Department of Finance
NO - 0442 Oslo
with Suresh Sundaresan
Forthcoming: Journal of Finance
Abstract: The 30-year U.S. swap spreads have been negative since September 2008. We offer a novel explanation for this persistent anomaly. Through an illustrative model, we show that underfunded pension plans optimally use swaps for duration hedging. Combined with dealer banks' balance sheet constraints, this demand can drive swap spreads to become negative. Empirically, we construct a measure of the aggregate funding status of Defined Benefit pension plans and show that this measure is a significant explanatory variable of 30-year swap spreads. We find a similar link between pension funds' underfunding and swap spreads for two other regions.
with David Lando
Forthcoming: Review of Financial Studies
Abstract: We develop a model in which a derivatives-dealing bank faces capital charges from uncollateralized swap positions with sovereigns, and buys Credit Default Swap (CDS) contracts to obtain capital relief. CDS premiums depend on margin requirements for buyers and sellers of CDS contracts, the value of capital relief for the dealer banks, and the return on a risky asset. We explain the regulatory requirements that lead derivatives dealers to buy CDS and translate volumes of derivatives contracts outstanding between sovereigns and banks into CDS hedging demand. We argue that CDS premiums for safe sovereigns are primarily driven by regulatory requirements.
with Frank Fabozzi, Pia Mølgaard, Mads Stenbo Nielsen
Abstract: Analyzing a novel dataset of leveraged loan trades executed by managers of collateralized loan obligations (CLOs), we document the importance of "active loan trades" -- trades executed at a manager's discretion. Active loan sales are conducted at better prices than non-active sales and before rating downgrades. More active CLOs trade at better prices than less active CLOs, selling leveraged loans earlier and before they get downgraded. More active trading also increases the returns to equity investors and lowers collateral portfolio default rates. In contrast, tests with a placebo variable, capturing passive turnover, lead to insignificant results.
Abstract: I develop a simple model in which hedge fund managers with access to less profitable investment strategies choose a higher exposure to funding risk in an attempt to generate competitive returns. Empirically, I find that hedge funds with a higher loading on a simple funding risk measure generate lower returns than hedge funds with a lower loading on that measure. In line with the model predictions, I find that (i) this underperformance is driven by a high loading on adverse funding shocks, (ii) a higher loading on funding risk predicts lower fund flows, and (iii) the results are significantly weaker for funds with less favorable redemption terms or funds with multiple prime brokers.
Article based on my master thesis:
with Y. S. Kim, S. T. Rachev, and F. J. Fabozzi
Published in Applied Financial Economics, 2013, 23(15) p. 1231-1238
Abstract: In this article, we introduce two new six-parameter processes based on time-changing tempered stable distributions and develop an option pricing model based on these processes. This model provides a good fit to observed option prices. To demonstrate the advantages of the new processes, we conduct two empirical studies to compare their performance to other processes that have been used in the literature.